Strategies proposed for making roads smoother
Improving the smoothness of the nation’s highways and roads is a key priority for transportation agencies. Significant progress has been made over the last decade in pavement materials, roadway surface design and pavement maintenance.
Increasingly, state and local transportation agencies are using improved pavement materials and construction practices to increase the long-term durability of pavements.
Transportation agencies also are putting more emphasis on providing earlier maintenance of pavement surfaces to extend their service life and delay the need for costly and traffic-delaying reconstruction. While these techniques may result in a higher initial cost, it is likely that this approach to pavement management will result in smoother pavements and lower long-term costs.
A solid, stable and consistent foundation below the surface of a road or highway is critical in maintaining a smooth driving surface. When constructing or reconstructing a roadway, it is critical that the pavement’s sub-base be adequate to support the roadway surface upon which cars and trucks will be driving. If a roadway’s foundation is deficient, it will reduce pavement smoothness and increase the rate of pavement deterioration.
Once a new pavement has been built, some transportation agencies are putting greater emphasis on doing early, preventative maintenance on these pavements to extend the life span of roadway surfaces and to delay the need for more significant pavement rehabilitation.
These initial surface treatments include sealing a road surface to prevent moisture from entering cracks in the pavement, or applying thin pavement overlays, which improve ride quality, correct small surface irregularities and improve surface drainage and friction.
For pavement preservation strategies to be effective, they must be applied while the pavement surface is still in good condition, with no apparent deterioration.
The timing of the maintenance and rehabilitation of road surfaces is critical, impacting the cost-effectiveness of the repairs and ultimately the overall quality of a regional road network. It is estimated that a preventive maintenance program can reduce the life cycle costs of a pavement surface by about one-third over a 25-year period.
The preventive maintenance approach may require several applications of minor sealing or resurfacing to a pavement surface over its lifetime, but reduces costs by delaying the need for more costly reconstruction.
A 2005 report from the National Center for Pavement Preservation recommended that transportation agencies adopt a pavement preservation strategy for the maintenance of the nation’s roads and highways. Instead of a reactive approach to roadway pavement maintenance that provides repairs to the road surfaces in the worst condition, the report recommends using a proactive approach that provides initial maintenance to pavements still in good condition, to significantly delay the need for costly reconstruction.
The U.S. DOT report noted that preventive maintenance can only be performed on road surfaces that are structurally sound. All other road and highway surfaces first need to be reconstructed before a preventive maintenance approach will be effective. The report recommends that transportation agencies implement a preventive maintenance program for roads and highways that are structurally sound and in good condition.
The report suggests that transportation agencies should continue to make surface repairs to roads and highways that are not structurally sound to maintain them in reasonable condition until there is adequate funding for the reconstruction of these roads, at which point transportation agencies can then implement a preventive maintenance program for these improved roads.
A recent FHWA report found that an over-reliance on short-term pavement repairs will fail to provide the long-term structural integrity needed in a roadway surface to guarantee the future performance of a paved road or highway.
The 2010 report, “Beyond the Short Term: Transportation Asset Management for Long-Term Sustainability, Accountability and Performance,” warned that transportation agencies that focus only on current pavement surface conditions will eventually face a highway network with an overwhelming backlog of pavement rehabilitation and replacement needs.